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The Impact of War series is made possible by generous contributions from Richard P. Brown, Jr. and Suzanne and Ronald Naples.

The Impact of War Archive

Moving from Helmets to Hardhats

February 9, 2011

Finding work remains one of the most pressing issues for veterans back home from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. One national initiative called Helmets to Hardhats is working with local partners around the country to help vets launch careers in the building trades and construction industries. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports.

Pictured above: Iraq War veteran Jaime Sanchez Jr. is a second year apprentice with the Boilermakers Local 28 in New Jersey.

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Delaware soldiers home from Afghanistan for the New Year

December 30, 2010

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Elyse Fenton

December 23, 2010

A Philadelphia writer has won a prize worth about 47-thousand dollars for her collection of war poetry inspired by her husband's service in Iraq. The University of Wales' Dylan Thomas Prize honors literary work in English by a writer under 30. Elyse Fenton is the first poet, and first American, to win the award. But the subject of her poems has created tension in a relationship that has weathered time and distance. As part of our Impact of War series, Whyy's Susan Phillips reports.

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Treatment Courts for Veterans

December 16, 2010

It's almost been a year since the Philadelphia municipal court launched its new Veterans Court program. The initiative focuses on linking veterans arrested for minor crimes with treatment and other benefits they're entitled to through the Veterans Administration. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports.

Pictured above: Judge Patrick Dugan, far right, congratulating a veteran who recently graduated from the Philadelphia Veterans Court program.

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Brad Busby: From front lines to family man

November 30, 2010

Brad Busby is a former Marine Corps Corporal. He served on the front lines in Afghanistan, and now serves his neighbors in Philadelphia. As part of our Impact of War series, Jen Howard reports on Busby's personal journey from military to civil service.

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Radio Times: Restrepo

November 29, 2010

The best-reviewed film of the U.S. war in Afghanistan receives its world television premiere on the National Geographic Channel tonight. "Restrepo" chronicles the yearlong deployment of a platoon of U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan's Korengal Valley, which saw some of the heaviest fighting of the war to date. The film takes its name from a 15-man combat outpost the soldiers dug into a hilltop in the dangerous valley, an outpost that itself was named after a popular medic in the platoon who was killed early in their deployment. The film by British award-winning photojournalist Tim Hetherington and U.S. journalist/author Sebastian Junger forgoes the big picture to hone in on the war as experienced by this one group of U.S. soldiers. The filmmakers join Radio Times' Marty Moss-Coane to discuss their movie, the men with whom they dodged bullets, laughed and suffered; and what they learned about war in the process. One of the men of Second Platoon was recently awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism depicted in the film.

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The Psychological and Moral Injuries of War

November 11, 2010

As the nation observes Veterans Day, some soldiers grapple with how to recover from the emotional trauma of combat. WHYY's Stephanie Marudas spoke with MacArthur Genius award-winning psychiatrist, Jonathan Shay, about the "psychological and moral injuries" of war.

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War and the Economy

Caption: Aaron Perrine with his wife, child and father before his deployment to Afghanistan.

October 29, 2010

With midterm elections days away, some veterans worry the economy is overshadowing the war in Afghanistan-- now in its 10th year and the nation's longest military conflict. An additional 30,000 soldiers are heading to Afghanistan under President Barack Obama's surge campaign, which calls for a troop withdrawal next summer if the situation allows. Since the war started in 2001, the government has spent more than 300-billion dollars and more than 1300 American soldiers have died. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports.

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Lt. Col. John Church

August 27, 2010

In his career as a Marine, Lt. Col. John Church has been assigned to some of the most problematic war zones in recent history, from Kosovo and Mogadishu to Afghanistan. Church is an educator, in fact he has just been appointed President of the Valley Forge Military College, and a problem solver. This summer, during his latest active tour of duty, Church, a decorated US Marine Corps veteran, helped plan civil and military operations with the Second Marine Expeditionary Brigade in Afghanistan's Helmand province.

He told his story on This I Believe

A safe haven for soldiers

February 10th, 2010

Caption: Two service members playing video games at the Liberty USO lounge in the Philadelphia International Airport.

This month marks the 69th anniversary of the United Service Organizations or the USO. To boost troop morale, the USO has entertained service members over the years with thousands of celebrities from Bob Hope to Stephen Colbert. But the USO also operates airport centers across the country, including here in Philadelphia, where troops travelling everyday stop by to eat and rest. Stephanie Marudas reports as part of our Impact of War series.

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Caption: What visitors to the Liberty USO lounge at the Philadelphia International Airport first see when they arrive.

Caption: Service members relaxing and using free Wi-Fi service in the Liberty USO lounge at the Philadlephia International Airport.

The War on the Big Screen

January 20, 2010

Caption: From left: Iraq war veteran Rick Lund and Afghanistan war veteran Chris Marvin are now graduate students at University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School of Business. Both have gone to see recent movies set around the wars.

At the recent Golden Globe Awards ceremony, Actor Kevin Bacon won best TV mini series actor for his role in HBO's Taking Chance. Three other movies about the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were also up for nominations. As part of our Impact of War Series, Stephanie Marudas talks with Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans about how they connect to these films.

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Part II: Military spouses and their networks of care

November 18, 2009

As soldiers go off to war, their spouses remain on the home-front and face new everyday challenges alone. But support groups, often led by other military spouses, are in place to help them. As part of our Impact of War series, we continue the story about the Pennsylvania National Guard 56th Stryker Brigade's deployment to Iraq and recent return home. Stephanie Marudas has the story.

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Part I: Families facing transitions

November 11, 2009

Caption: From left: Greg (in cap) and Wendy Wright. Preston and Debbie O'Connor. Standing outside the O'Connor's home in a town north of Allentown. Greg and Preston recently returned from Iraq with the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade.

The Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade returned home from Iraq in September after a nine month deployment there. On this Veterans' Day, the brigade's 4600 members are now readjusting to life back home. As part of our Impact of War series, Stephanie Marudas spoke with two brigade members and their spouses.

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College bound veterans

November 4, 2009

The Veterans Upward Bound program in Philadelphia helps veterans of all ages brush up on basic academic skills before applying to college. Veterans, who served in the military after 9-11, consider this federally-funded program a stepping stone to higher education, the new GI Bill benefits, and future employment. WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports as part of our Impact of War series.

Caption: Iraq war veteran and MBA student Kyle Seibolt tutors a Gulf War veteran at Veterans Upward Bound program. Seibolt is a member of the Veterans Club at Penn's Wharton Business School.

Caption: Injured Iraq War veteran Charles Schaeffer (in white long sleeve shirt) at tutoring session getting help. He's in the Veterans Upward Bound program, and taking classes to brush up on his skills before applying to college.

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Soldiers wait for G.I. Bill payments

September 29, 2009

The nation's new G.I. Bill is having a few problems, like not getting the money out on time. Similar to its predecessor after World War II, the program provides war vets the chance to go to college with the federal aid dollars. Thousands of dollars in education benefits are stalled. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

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Homeless Veterans
looking for help

September 16, 2009

Caption: Stand Down Registration

Every September for the past 16 years in Philadelphia, an overnight weekend event called Stand Down has been held to provide homeless veterans with free medical and social services. As part of our Impact of War Series, Stephanie Marudas reports on the problems homeless veterans face and what the government is doing about it.

Captions: Larry Kidd (left) and Rob Hajek (right).

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The new GI-Bill

September 2, 2009

Caption: Rutgers Camden undergraduate student Bill Brown (left) helped rally for passing of Post 9-11 GI Bill and seeking further education benefits for veterans. Rashad McCloud (right), Wharton Business School MBA candidate in his apartment he's paying with funds from the VA under the Post 9-11 GI Bill.

The Post-9/11 GI Bill kicked in August and veterans who served after September 11th 2001 are starting to take advantage of it. The new benefits include tuition up to the most expensive public institution in a veteran's home state, or for that money to be applied towards tuition at a private institution. As part of our Impact of War Series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas follows two Iraq veterans benefiting from this new bill.

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Democracy in action in Iraq

August 26, 2009

For the past six years, the world has watched Iraq's fledgling Democratic government struggle to take shape. As Scott Detrow reports for our Impact of War series, soldiers in the Pennsylvania National Guard are getting a first-hand look at that process, as they work alongside Iraqi legislators.

Caption: Taji council members at work.

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56th Stryker Brigade to return home

August 17, 2009

Members of the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade will begin heading home this week. About 200 soldiers serving as an advance team are expected to arrive at Fort Dix to prepare for the return of the 4,000-member brigade. The soldiers went to Iraq last January as part of the state Guard's largest deployment to the Iraq War. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

Caption: Sgt. Michael Raley of the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade waits outside Iraqi Army barracks just before dawn.

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Night convoy, Taji, Iraq

August 12, 2009

In addition to its presence on Camp Taji, the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Strkyer Brigade mans nine smaller bases called "joint service stations" with the Iraqi Army. It takes a lot to keep them running, including fuel, water and food - and it's the 328th Brigade Support Battalion's job to get those supplies there. As part of our ongoing Impact of War series, Scott Detrow reports from Taji, Iraq.

Captions: Soldiers gather for a roll call before the convoy departs(top). An MRAP vehicle, which is designed to protect soldiers against IED blasts(bottom).

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Military kids feel the stress of deployment

August 5, 2009

Caption: Military kids at Operation Purple Camp at Villanova University. From the left: McKenzie Ott, Adam Washington, Victoria Crutchfield, camp director Erica Rubin.

Military kids dealing with the deployment of a parent face many challenges, and increasingly, they are having a tough time handling stress and worry. New statistics from the Defense Department show that the number of military children seeking mental health care has doubled since the beginning of the Iraq War, from 1 million to 2 million. Military officials, psychologist, and family organizations are trying to find ways to help them cope - and kids are reaching out to help each other. As part of our Impact Of War series, Maiken Scott reports from WHYY's Behavioral Health Desk.

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Related Content
Radio Times:

August 5, 2009

Special host Maiken Scott takes a look at the mental health of children of U.S. military parents. Guests include Dr. BARBARA VAN DAHLEN, President and Founder of Give an Hour, an organization that provides free mental health services to U.S. military personnel and VA and University of Oklahoma Medical School psychologist MICHELLE SHERMAN. Listen to the mp3

Iraqis seek refuge in Delaware Valley

August 4, 2009

More Iraqi refugees are arriving in the Philadelphia region every day. One nonprofit group has settled 245 Iraqis in the area since 2007. One small group of refugees are here because their work with U.S. forces and contractors have put their lives at risk. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

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On patrol looking for a weapon's cache

July 29, 2009

Communicating and cooperating with the Iraqi Army is one of the main challenges members of the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56h Stryker Brigade are facing during deployment. As part of our ongoing Impact of War series, our reporter Scott Detrow goes along with a platoon as it searches for buried weapons with Iraqi soldiers.

Captions: Sgt. Michael Raley waits outside Iraqi Army barracks just before dawn(top). Abbas questions Iraqi woman as American troops look on(left). Soldiers wait with Iraqi Captain Abbas at Iraqi company's barracks(right).

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Healing with acupuncture

July 8, 2009

Military doctors are using state of the art medical care to treat wounded soldiers but they're also applying the ancient Chinese practice of acupuncture to help manage pain. Private sector acupuncturists in 20 cities, including Philadelphia, are running free acupuncture programs for active duty military and veterans to relieve stress. As part of our Impact of War Series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports.

Captions: (top) 24-year old Jack Schumacher in his hospital bed at Walter Reed Army Medical Center after receiving acupuncture. (bottom) Colonel Richard Niemtzow and Dr. Stephen Burns run the military's only acupuncture clinic at Andrews Air Force Base.

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A reporter's training

June 10, 2009

What does it take to be a war correspondent? It's more than bravado and resilience; and as many journalists say there really is no "war zone reporting for dummies" book out there. So when our reporter Scott Detrow started gearing up for a three-week embed with Pennsylvania National Guard troops stationed in Iraq, he didn't really know where to start. As Detrow reports in this Impact of War feature, a week-long hostile environment training course in Georgia helped a great deal.

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From grief to action

June 3, 2009

Three years have gone by since United States Marine Adam Conboy of Philadelphia died in Iraq. His family continues to grieve but cope in part by running an organization to provide troops at war with basic necessities like linens and toiletries. As part of our Impact of War Series, WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports.

Captions: Mary Warner, Adam's mother in front of Operation Bedding Office in Manayunk (top), and Operation Bedding Truck parked outside Mary Warner's home (bottom).

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The games of war

May 6, 2009

Army officials say enlistments in the region are on the rise, thanks in part to an experimental recruiting center at a local shopping mall. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Bill Hangley visited with the soldiers who run the center and the critics who want it closed.

Caption: Army Experience Center in the Franklin Mills Mall.

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A daughter's decision

April 22, 2009

For the graduating class of 2009 at Woodrow Wilson high school in Camden New Jersey, the summer means a mix of freedom and weighing prospects for their future. But less than fifty-percent of last year's graduating class went on to college, making career options slim. Senior Tyshay Baker sees the military as a ticket to the life she wants of college and travel away from Camden. It's a decision that worries her parents who already have one child in Iraq. WHYY's Stephanie Marudas reports as part of our Impact of War series.

Caption: Sheila Baker and 2-year old daughter with Tyshay. Holding Christmas card showing Bernard Baker Jr. sent from Iraq.

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A group of veterans consider the impact of war on their sons

April 8, 2009

Caption: Thomas Walker gets a lift from his fellow veterans. Angel Fernandez is second from the left.

In many families, military service is a tradition. But the price of that tradition can be high. Today we visit with a group of veterans who still struggle with the legacy of of their service even as their sons fight in Iraq and Afghanistan. WHYY's Bill Hangley has more.

Captions: (left) Richardson's role-playing games helped Vietnam veteran Rommie Parker name some of his deepest fears. Here he tries to cast them away. (right) Martin Richardson asks Charles Johnson to grapple with his past.

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A son's return

April 1, 2009

Anna McMichen of Philadelphia is anxiously waiting for her son to come home from Iraq. She is a single parent, and talks about how she's coped with having her only child at war. Stephanie Marudas reports as part of our Impact of War series.

Caption: Anna McMichen and son Danny McMichen before his second deployment to Iraq

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The trauma of war

March 18, 2009

Almost two million American soldiers have served in Iraq and Afghanistan, and experts estimate that as many as one in five will suffer from the depression and confusion that comes with post-traumatic stress disorder. Today, we visit with an Iraq war vet from West Philadelphia whose recovery has only just begun. WHYY's Bill Hangley has more.

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Jobs for wounded soldiers

March 11, 2009

Finding a job remains an obstacle for soldiers disabled in Iraq and Afghanistan. A new initiative is under way to employ wounded veterans in congressional district offices nationwide, including here in Philadelphia. Stephanie Marudas reports as part of our Impact of War series.

Captions: Representative Allyson Schwartz and Dan Lasko outside the Capitol(top), and Dan Lasko at his desk helping a veteran fill out paperwork(bottom).

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A Philadelphia family copes on the home front

March 4, 2009

Less than a year ago, United States marine Dametrius Griffin returned from a tour of Iraq. The 20-year old Philadelphian will soon return to the frontline, this time in Afghanistan. WHYY's Stephanie Marudas talks with his family as part of our Impact of War series.

Captions: Charlene Griffin and photograph of Dametrius,(top) and the Griffin family(bottom).

Caption: Dametrius Griffin's bedroom: Welcome Home banner when he returned from Iraq.

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Guardsman gets ready to serve others in his golden years

February 11, 2009

In the Pennsylvania National Guard, mandatory retirement occurs at age 60. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Jennifer Lynn profiles a guardsman whose choices, both past and present, will lead him toward security and purpose in his golden years.

Captions: Retirement house in Aruba(top) Senior Weapon Sergeant Notter with Aiden and Laurie Lynn(bottom)

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The role of the citizen-soldier

January 28, 2009

Members of the Pennsylvania National Guard are citizen-soldiers. Usually, they leave their families and their jobs just once a month, for training. But this month, the members of the 56th Stryker Brigade deployed to Iraq. That was after spending the fall training stateside, at bases in Mississippi, Louisiana, and New Jersey. In our ongoing Impact of War series WPSU Cynthia Berger asked Sergeant Matt Nedrow to keep an audio diary.

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Immigrants gear up to fight for their second home

January 14, 2009

An immigrant with $198 in his pocket, Lakshman Kandasamy, a computer software engineer and a Nascar fan moved to this country from India ten years ago. Today, he has a house in the suburbs, a car and a job he loves. Now his American dream also includes deployment orders to Iraq. In our continuing Impact of War series, WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

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Taking care of the dogs of war

January 7, 2009

Caption: First Lieutenant Robert Krohn also with the 56th Stryker Brigade with his dogs Credence and Layken.

When National Guard soldiers get deployed overseas plans are made for their children, their mortgage, and their spouses. But what happens to their pets? One group in Pennsylvania has started to support the troops by keeping their dogs out of the pound. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

Captions: (left) Specialist Jim Butz of the 56th Stryker Brigade and his wife Megan say goodbye to ther dog Angel. (right) Volunteers take care of the dogs in a barn with plenty of couches, heated floors and an outside run.

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Facing the music of the daily bugle call

December 31, 2008

One of the most common shared experience among soldiers is reveille the daily bugle call that marks the start of the day and the raising of the flag. It's a moment captured by one of the audio essayists of the Pennsylvania 56th Striker Brigade as they trained in Mississippi before being deployed next month. WPSU producer Cynthia Berger sent his report.

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Ready for Deployment

December 24, 2008

Members of the Pennsylvania National Guard 56th Stryker Brigade have been training for months traveling from Fort Indiantown Gap to camp Shelby in Mississippi and then to Fort Dix in NJ. Parallel to the intensity of the training is a growing desire to begin their military mission. So after spending some time with their families during the holidays, they'll be ready to deploy first to Kuwait and then to Iraq. As part of our ongoing series on The Impact of War, WITF's reporter Scott Detrow visited the soldiers at Camp Shelby.

Caption: Lt. Sam Coover talks to Sgt. Sean Wehlan at Camp Shelby

Caption: Members of the PA Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade run through drills at Camp Shelby

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Home for the holidays before leaving for Iraq

December 24, 2008

Pennsylvania National Guard soldiers from the 56th Stryker Brigade headed home to their families on Monday for their final visit before going to Iraq in mid-January. It will be the state guard's largest deployment to the Iraq war. WHYY's Susan Phillips joined them on the firing range last week.

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Soldiers audio diaries: Soldiers say goodbye to their families

December 17, 2008

Caption: SFC Matthew Nedrow (left) and SGT Jason Burrows (right).

For the past year, the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade has been training for deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. A few moths ago, WPSU producer Cynthia Berger in State College, gave recording equipment to three soldiers. Today we hear some of their audio diaries as they say goodbye to their families before going to training camp in Camp Shelby in Mississippi.

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Soldiers audio diaries: Experiences at Camp Shelby

December 10, 2008

The Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade is training for deployment for Iraq. This past September, soldiers left Pennsylvania for Camp Shelby in Mississippi. So, what was that like? WPSU-FM gave recording equipment to some local soldiers, so they could share their experiences with you. Cynthia Berger has this first report.

Caption: Audio-diarists from right to left, SPC McPherson, SGT Burrows, and SFC Nedrow (in front), with WPSU's Berger, Unit commander CPT Paola Sica, and NPR's "Impact of War" Editor Vicky O'Hara.

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"Citizen Soldiers" leave behind jobs, families

October 8, 2008

Members of the Pennsylvania National Guard are used to the difficult role of "citizen soldier," balancing their military responsibilities with their personal and professional lives. The year-long deployment to Iraq of the 56th Stryker Brigade is making that juggling act more difficult. Sam Coover is a high school chemistry teacher. He's also a single father leaving his three young children. As part of our on-going Impact of War series, WITF's Scott Detrow reports.

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Tradition dating to Civil War sends PA soldiers off to battle

October 1, 2008

Members of the National Guard are more than soldiers. They are fire fighters, teachers, and grocery store owners - people who are sorely missed in rural Pennsylvania. The small, central Pennsylvania town of Bellefonte has a farewell ritual stretching back to the Civil War. As part of our Impact of War series, WPSU's Cynthia Berger files this report.

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Experience more of the tradition of Bellefonte in this audio slideshow as the people of this small town bid farewell to their soldiers. View the audio slideshow

PA troops get final training before Iraq deployment

September 24, 2008

Hundreds of National Guard members from the Philadelphia area are saying their goodbyes to friends, neighbors and co-workers and heading off to full-time training in Mississippi where Pennsylvania's 56th Stryker Brigade will prepare for deployment to Iraq later this year. It's part of the state guard's largest deployment to Iraq. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports.

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Families find strength in one particular army wife and mother

September 17, 2008

While members of the Pennsylvania National Guard's 56th Stryker Brigade are preparing for deployment to Iraq, their loved ones are preparing themselves for the ordeal at home. Many of the women will become the sole heads of their households. They're turning to each other for strength. Cynthia Berger talked with the one woman who everyone relies on.

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Comforting the families left behind

July 30, 2008

When soldiers head off to war, the military chaplain's job is to help their families with everything from child care to funeral arrangements. In the latest installment of our Impact Of War series, we visit one man who is both a chaplain and a young soldier's father. He'll be the spiritual guide for the ones left behind when the 56th Stryker Brigade deploys in the fall. WHYY's Susan Phillips reports. Listen to the mp3 »

Behind the scope: Training with the snipers

July 23, 2008

Serving with U.S. forces in Iraq is dangerous for anyone, but snipers face unique risks often spending a good deal of time alone in hostile territory. Snipers also bear a heavy burden with responsibility for the safety of other soldiers. As the 56th Stryker Brigade of the Pennsylvania National Guard prepares to deploy to Iraq, intensive training is underway for all soldiers - including the snipers. WITF's Scott Detrow has this segment in our "Impact of War" series. Listen to the mp3 »

The vehicle that gives the "Stryker" Brigade its name

June 25, 2008

The 56th Stryker Brigade of the Pennsylvania National Guard is expected to deploy to Iraq by the end of this year. The brigade is one of six units in the nation with the new Stryker vehicles. Troops across the state have been training to fight Iraqi insurgents at Fort Indiantown Gap in Lebanon County. In our continuing Impact of War series, WPSU's David Klatt reports. Listen to the mp3 »

More info: Wikipedia's Stryker page

Preparing families to deal with the dangers of war

June 18, 2008

Soldiers have been heading to war in Iraq for more than five years. News stories follow the battles, the casualties, the policy debates. But who are these soldiers and what motivates someone to join up and fight? The 56th Stryker Brigade of the Pennsylvania National Guard is getting ready to deploy by the end of the year. These soldiers leave behind jobs, wives, husbands, and children. As part of our Impact of War series, WHYY's Susan Phillips has the story of one family trying to balance the hope of improving their lot with the dangers of war. Listen to the mp3 »

Serving for both God and Country

June 11, 2008

In this week's installment of our Imapct of War series, we bring you the story of Father Bert Kozen. Father Kozen has taken a leave from his church to train with the Pennsylvania National Guard for an expected deployment in Iraq. Pamela Varkony has a profile of the Chaplain. Listen to the mp3 »

From college campus to war zone

June 4, 2008

College and university students across Pennsylvania have wrapped up the spring term but many are not heading back home. One in every four members of the Pennsylvania National Guard is a student. Later this year, some of them will be heading to Iraq with the 56th Stryker Brigade. From WPSU, Cynthia Berger reports.
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Introducing the 56th Stryker Brigade

May 28, 2008

Nearly 4,000 members of the Pennsylvania National Guard are preparing to be deployed to Iraq. The 56th Stryker Brigade combat team is expected to deploy this winter for what's scheduled to be a year-long mission. WHYY, in conjunction with other public radio stations in Pennsylvania, will follow members of the brigade, their families and their local communities throughout this deployment. Listen to the first report from Scott Detrow. Listen to the mp3 »