We encourage you to read more about
the important issues that affect our increasingly technology-driven
lives, and how our democracy is strengthened or weakened by reliance
on digital technology. The bibliography below suggests valuable
references for the topics discussed on
“Digital Democracy and Freedom of Speech.” |
Can freedom of speech be assured on the Internet?
Can we bridge the digital divide for persons of different ages, races, income levels and abilities?
How does domestic wiretapping legislation affect freedom of speech?
Are privacy rights being eroded by poor public policies?
Is citizen journalism the answer to free exchange of ideas?
How are public records used and misused?
How does access to the Internet differentially affect individuals in the U.S. and the world?
How have corporations exercised "freedom of speech?"
Has the U.S. government sacrificed personal freedoms for security and bureaucratic efficiency?
Question: Can freedom
of speech be assured on the Internet?
Nunziato, Dawn (Spring, 2005).
“The death of the public forum in cyberspace,” Berkeley Technology
Law Journal, 20 (2), p1115-1171.
article discusses the internet as a forum for free expression and the
courts’ refusal to subject internet users to First Amendment standards.
“How protesters use the internet”,
CQ Researcher, (Sept 17, 2004), 14 (32), p771-771.
case study involving the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) opposed
to the criminal investigation against an anti-Republican Party web site
by the US Justice Department.
Riley, Jason L. (1999). “The
internet vs. the First Amendment”, Wall Street Journal-Eastern
Edition, (Oct 25, 1999), 234 (81), pA53.
discussion of the internet on free speech in the United States, the
significance of intellectual property in US democracy, and the status
of the copyright law.
Snow, Tyson (2004). “Adding
marks to the mix of an already muddled decision regarding public forums
and freedom of speech
on the internet,” BYU Journal of Public Law, 19 (1),
regarding Public Forums and freedom of speech on the Internet.
Rowbottom, Jacob (July, 2006).
“Media freedom and political debate in the digital era”, Modern
Law Review, p489-513.
impact of online expression on theories of media freedom.
“Governing the internet,”
eWeek, (Nov. 21, 2005). 22(46), p36.
various issues related to the control of Internet. The article addresses
how the way the Internet is managed could affect issues ranging from
free speech to the worldwide conduct of business on the Web.
Question: Can we bridge the digital
divide for persons of different ages, races, income levels and
Gandy, Oscar H. Jr. (2002)
“The real digital divide: Citizens v. consumers” in L. Leivrow and
S. Livingstone (Eds.). The Handbook of New Media, (Sage,). pp.
of how citizens are viewed as participants, or consumers in society.
Baker, Paul M.A., Moon, Nathan
and Andrew C. Ward.. (2006) “Virtual Exclusion and Telework:
Barriers and Opportunities of Technocentric Workplace Accommodation
Policy,” WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation.
how teleworking may increase opportunities for hiring people with disabilities,
but it might also place severe constraints on type of work, workplace
environment and personal interactions, and accumulation of social capital
for people with disabilities.
Baker, Paul M.A., and Christine
Bellordre. (December,2003). “Factors Influencing Adoption of Wireless
Technologies - Key Policy Issues, Barriers and Opportunities for People
with Disabilities” Information Technology and Disabilities.
technologies routinely used by the general population are frequently
inaccessible to persons with disabilities; this article discusses the
barriers to the use of these technologies by people with varying disabilities.
“The World Information Society
Report 2007”, WSIS: World Summit on the Information Society,
a shrinking digital divide (especially in the area of mobile telephony),
the affordability of broadband remains a cause for concern. At
the start of 2007, broadband was available in 170 countries, but still
remains 10 times more expensive in low-income countries, and is often
unavailable in rural areas.
“Binary America: Split in
two by a digital divide,”Washington Post (July 23, 2007).
Andrew Rasiej, a member of a panel studying universal Internet access
in New York, who claims the digital divide in the U.S. is worse than
it was 10 years ago, with the divide occurring between corporate and
Question: How does domestic wiretapping
legislation affect freedom of speech?
“New rules on internet wiretapping
challenged; redesign costs are cited”, The Washington Post, (Oct 26,
Lee Tien, a senior staff lawyer with the Electronic Frontier Foundation,
who says it’s a bad idea for government to design technologies (like
the Internet) to be surveillance-friendly when it comes to privacy and
Kennedy, Edward M. (December,
2005), “On wiretapping, Bush isn’t listening to the constitution,”The
Boston Globe, http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/b_globe/2005-12-22_bglobe_kennedy_on_wiretaps.pdf
the effect of wiretapping to a federal agent showing up at your home
when you check out a book from the library; dicusses the chilling effect
on free speech and academic freedom.
“Judge rules NSA surveillance
program is unconstitutional,” Congress Daily, (Aug 17, 2006).
the story of how the American Civil Liberties Union filed a lawsuit
on behalf of journalists, scholars and lawyers who believe the National
Security Agency’s surveillance program has made it difficult for them
to do their jobs.
Bamford, James. (April, 2006),
“Big brother is listening”, The Atlantic Monthly, 297(3), p65-70.
the range of the NSA’s ability to scan tens of millions of electronic
communications, such as e-mails, faxes, instant messages, Web searches
and phone calls. The author discusses questions regarding the legal
protection of citizens' rights.
“Domestic wiretapping affects
you!,” Editorial,(January, 2006). The Stanford Daily, http://daily.stanford.edu/article/2006/1/26/subjectDomesticWiretappingAffectsYou
the impact of wiretapping on an average student.
Question: Are privacy
rights being eroded by poor public policies?
Gandy, Oscar H., Jr. The
Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information
(Boulder, CO: Westview Press,
1993): (Japanese translation, published by Dobunkan Shuppan, 1997).
of the seminal texts on the growing threat of surveillance and control
in the U.S. and the world.
Gandy, Oscar H., Jr. "Legitimate
business interest: No end in sight? An Inquiry into the Status of Privacy
in Cyberspace." University of Chicago Legal Forum, Volume
1996, pp. 77-137.
how the collection, processing, and use of personal information in the
computer-network environment contribute to a loss of power and autonomy.
Swartz, Nikki (Nov/Dec, 2005),
“Federal agencies aren't protecting privacy, report says”,
Information Management Journal, 39(6), p16.
on the failure of U.S. administrative agencies to adequately protect
privacy rights when using data mining or knowledge discovery tools.
Jane E. Fountain. “Central
Issues in the Political Development of the Virtual State,” in Manuel
Castells and Gustavo Cardoso, eds. The Network Society: From Knowledge
to Policy (Washington, D.C.: Johns Hopkins Center for Transatlantic
Mcallister, Darryl. (May 2007),
“Law enforcement turns to face-recognition technology”, Information
Today, 24(5), p50-51.
race-recognition biometrics as a pervasive, unobtrusive surveillance
technique that can threaten individual privacy rights.
Single, Ryan (July 25, 2005),
“Legislators split on data privacy laws”, eWeek, 22(29),
what could happen in the next few years if technological innovation
and public policy trends in online storage, location tracking and biometrics
remain on their current status.
Question: Is citizen journalism
the answer to free exchange of ideas?
Potter, Deborah, (2006) Handbook
of Independent Journalism, (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of State) http://www.usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/journalism/journalism.pdf
valuable resource that discusses the profession and craft of journalism,
and the responsibility of journalists to contribute to information for
a free society.
Bowman, S. and Willis, C. (2003)
"We media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information."
The Media Center at the American Press Institute.
thorough discussion on the history and implication of citizen journalism
“Blogs and freedom of speech”,
Worldpress.org (June 6, 2006), http://www.worldpress.org/2373.cfm
how blogs allow individuals to exercise freedom of speech.
Seelye, Katharine Q. (July
4, 2005). “Hands-On readers”, New York Times, 154 (53265),
article describes citizen journalism (participatory journalism) that
allows the public to influence the content and focus of the news media,
including contributions through blogs, photographs, and podcasts.
Bressers, Bonnie. (March, 2003).
“Civic journalism goes online”, Quill, 91(2),
ways in which newspapers offer readers the opportunity to exchange ideas
through online civic journalism.
“Weblog background information
for journalists”, PJNet Academy,
Dick Morris who views the Internet as the essence freedom, by providing
the opportunity to all to become “publishers” of news and information.
Nieman Reports, (Winter 2005), 59 (4), p4-5.
valuable resource on the emergence and practice of citizen journalism.
Question: How are public records
used and misused?
“Open season on open records,”
New media and the law, (Summer 2006), 30 (3), p27-29.
on concealed-weapon permits and legislative e-mail messages which were
targets for secrecy in 2006 in U.S. statehouses. An amendment was added
to legislation in Ohio aimed at strengthening its public records law
banning journalists' access to some types of records.
“Government record inquiries
increasing”, Information Management Journal, (Jul/Aug2006),
40 (4), p10.
with citizens’ growing interest in city records, forcing several
U.S. cities to consider open records seriously.
Brenner, Andrew. (Spring 2005),
“Breaking the records law,” News Media & the Law, 29(2),
author reports that in many states, law enforcement agencies are the
most likely to break the law by refusing to release public records.
Harmon, Amy. (August, 2001).
“As public records go online, some say they're too public,” New
York Times, 150 (51855), pA1.
the debate over online access to public recordes, like voter registration
and court records.
How does access to the Internet
differentially affect individuals in the U.S. and the world?
Baker, Paul M.A., and Andrew
C. Ward. (2002). “Bridging Temporal and Spatial “Gaps”: The Role
of Information and Communication Technologies in Defining Communities.”
Information Communication and Society,
5 (2) 207-224.
on the infrastructure of the Internet and the emergence of (virtual)
communities based on geographically distributed sources of information
production and exchange rather than the geographic proximity of community
members to each other.
Susannah Fox, “Digital Divisions,”
(October 5, 2005), Pew Internet & American Life Project, http://www.pewinternet.org_/pdfs/PIP_Digital_Divisons_Oct_5_
of survey data indicating differential access to broadband technologies
in the U.S.
Gandy, Oscar H., Communication
and Race: A Structural Perspective, (Edward Arnold and Oxford
University Press, 1998).
scholarly approach to understanding race and ethnicity in information
media, starting with issues of structure and agency and ending by proposing
an agenda for the development of critical theory in the area of race
Internet ignorance will kill
hope and ambition. Western Mail. (December 16, 2005), p20.
differences and effects of internet access in UK, Wales, India and China.
“Digital Britain: Digital
divide grows for older Britons as others connect to new media”,
The Guardian, (March 16, 2007), p.8.
lack of internet access affects the lives of older Britons.
How have corporations exercised
“freedom of speech?”
“Corporations and free speech,”,Multinational
Monitor, (May 1998), 19 (5).
the ways in which a corporation can encourage the practice of free speech
Soley, Lawrence,” Censorship,
Inc.: The corporate threat to free speech in the United States. Monthly
Review Press. New York.
shows how corporate power has grown to influence the issues on which
ordinary Americans should be able to speak out. New strategies have
been developed to restrict free speech on issues in which corporations
and property-owners have an interest.
Lane, Brian. (May 2004),
“The Abuses of Corporate Personhood”, USA Today Magazine,
the ways corporations use their First Amendment right to free speech
and their Fourth Amendment right to privacy rights.
Diamond, Harris. (July 2003),
“Court's decision a blow to free speech,”
Brandweek, 44 (27), p21.
case study of the Supreme Court’s decision not to rule on the false
advertising case against Nike, and its implications for corporations’
free speech rights.
Gowri, Aditi. (December 1998).
“Speech and spending: Corporate political speech rights under the
First Amendment,” Journal of business ethics,
Question: Has the U.S. government
sacrificed personal freedoms for security and bureaucratic efficiency?
Fountain, Jane E., Building
the Virtual State: Information Technology and Institutional Change,
(Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001).
analysis of government, agency organizations, including the military,
and the effect of using digital technology for internal communication
and decision making.
Gandy, Oscar H. Jr. “Data
mining, surveillance, and discrimination in the post-9/11 environment,”
in The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility, K. Haggerty
and R. Ericson, (Eds.) (University of Toronto Press, 2006), .pp.363-384.
discussion of how data mining extracts knowledge from patterns that
emerge, and the destructive nature of the practice on personal privacy.
“Privacy and federal agencies:
Government exchange and merger of citizen’s personal information is
systematic and routine”, Privacilla org (March, 2001). http://www.privacilla.com/releases/Government_Data_Merger.pdf
the “Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act,” which results
in legal changes to control of databases concerning personal information
about American citizens.